Italy - Selling and buying
Reaching the consumers
Italian consumers are very demanding in terms of quality but less so regarding the frequency of special offers, loyalty programs, credit possibilities and days and times of opening.
Generally speaking, foreign names represent 47% of hypermarkets. In 2004, there were 469 hypermarkets, 990 supermarkets, and 6 627 small supermarkets. The foodstuff distribution market is very concentrated as the leading 10 groups have 77% of market share.
However, there is an imbalance between the north and the south of the country, however: more than 50% of supermarkets and 65% of hypermarkets are concentrated in the north. As a result, the large groups will have to concentrate their efforts on the southern part of the country.
Market access procedures
Member of the Euro zone.
Member of the European Economic Area which has guaranteed, since 1 January 1993, the free movement of most goods between European countries.
Multilateral and bilateral agreements with many countries but Italy is not part of all the agreements and unions to which the EU is a signatory.
If the EU has quite a liberal foreign trade policy, there are a certain number of restrictions, especially at the level of agricultural products, ensuing from the implementation of the CAP (Common Agricultural Policy): applying compensations when importing and exporting agricultural products to favor the development of agriculture within the EU implies a certain number of systems to control and regulate goods entering EU territory.
Moreover, for sanitary reasons, with regards to Genetically Modified Organisms, if they are allowed in Europe, their presence must, for example, be systematically specified on packaging. Importing beef fed on hormones is also prohibited.
The principle of precaution is now more widely favored: in case of doubt, import is prohibited until the non- noxiousness of the goods is proved.
Goods containing animal products require a certificate from a competent authority in the country of origin. Fishery products need to show a catch certificate.
As part of the "SAFE" standards advocated by the World Customs Organization (WCO), the European Union has set up a new system of import controls, the "Import Control System" (ICS), which aims to secure the flow of goods at the time of their entry into the customs territory of the EU. This control system, part of the Community Program eCustomer, has been in effect since January 1, 2011. Since then, operators are required to pass an Entry Summary Declaration (ENS) to the customs of the country of entry, prior to the introduction of goods into the customs territory of the European Union.
Non-agricultural goods entering EU territory must adhere to customs formalities (summary declaration). This declaration must be carried out by the person bringing the goods to the territory. This procedure could take:
- 45 days in the case of goods carried by sea;
- 20 days in the case of goods carried other than by sea.
Material can enter temporarily without customs fees if it will be used to manufacture products for export. In this case the import gives a guarantee (from an insurance company or bank) for the amount of duties and taxes. This guarantee will be reimbursed when the final product is exported. This process also applies to goods planned to be re-exported.
Goods in transit only need a single EU transit document.
Inward processing is free of customs treatment. Only goods sold in the EU market are eligible to import duty and taxes. For outward processing, duties and taxes apply only to the value added during the process. Only firms located in Italy or in the EU take advantage of this measure.
Check the EU’s Customs website periodically for updates.
Organizing goods transport
Every year, 750,000 tonnes of freight transit via the two international airports of Roma Fiumicino and Milano Malpensa.
Goods transport by road represent 1,243 million tonnes each year.
The Italian rail network carries 87 million tonnes of goods every year in Italy.